Episode 9: Sentence Structure and Particles
I am currently sitting at a lecture, spending my time productively and uploading this video on YouTube (KIDS, do NOT follow my example and pay attention during class! ^^).
As for what we're discussing this week, sentence structure is one of the hardest aspects of Korean language for foreigners, especially English speakers, The English sentence structure is an exact opposite of Korean and that is hard to get used to at first. DON'T WORRY though! I will try and help you out the best I can so that Korean sentence structure will not be as scary and intimidating as you might have thought it to be at first.
Sentence Structure (English)-
Subject + Verb + Object
Example: Mom cooked dinner.
or Subject +Verb (sometimes)
Example: He ran.
Sentence Structure (Korean)-
Subject+ Object+ Verb
Example: 엄마는 저녁식사를 요리했어요 --> Mom dinner made.
or Object + Verb (Adjective)
밥을 먹었어요 --> Food ate (the Subject is omitted)
or Subject + Verb (Adjective)
그녀는 예쁘다 --> She is pretty (similar to English sentence structure)
No matter where the other parts of the sentence are, verbs or adjectives ALWAYS go at the end of the sentence, without exceptions!
In Korean, verbs and adjectives have similar qualities and are conjugated in pretty much identical ways, for example-
공부하다 (to study) -- 공부해요 [verb]
행복하다 (to be happy) -- 행복해요 [adj.]
Both of these, a verb and an adjective, have the same infinitive form and conjugate similarly when used in a sentence. The reason why I'm pointing this out is just to illustrate why it is verbs AND adjectives that go at the end of the sentence. I just want this to make a bit more sense to you guys because it was quite confusing to me at first.
Subject Markers: 는/은 -- 집은, 사과는, 방은, 여자는, 책은, 남자는
Object Markers: 를/을-- 집을, 사과를, 방을, 여자를, 책을, 남자를
(Whether you use 는/를 or 은/을 depends on whether the word ends on a consonants or a vowel)
Example of the importance of particles:
나는 너를 좋아해요- I like you
너는 나를 좋아해요- You like me
Location/Time Particle- 에
This particle may appear tricky at first but in reality it's quite straight forward. 에 can only be translated as "at", "on", "in" and "to". It is used to indicate time and location. The more vocabulary you learn the easier it will be to understand the meaning of 에 in different sentences because you'll understand the context. Korean is all about understanding the context to be honest.
나는 공원에 가요 - I'm going to the park [location]
사과는 탁자를 위에 있어요 - An apple is on the table [location]
두 시 반에 꿑나요 - It ends at 2.30 [time]
나의 남자친구는 천 구백 구십 사녠에 태어났어요 - My boyfriend was born in 1994 [time]
학생들이* 학교 안에 있어요 - There are students inside the school
*Did you guys notice a new particle I'm using here?
It is yet another Subject/Object marking particle- 이/가, which I will talk in depth about in the next week's episode.
Have fun learning :)
Let me know if you have any questions!